पत्रिका – ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय http://gyanvigyanprasar.com Global School of Science and Philosophy Thu, 05 Jan 2017 06:08:26 +0000 en hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.2 An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_542.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_542.html#respond Thu, 05 Jan 2017 06:08:26 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=542 An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda This could solve a lot of problems. PETER DOCKRILL 4 JAN 2017 AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to FlipboardShare to Copy Link A chemical plant in India is the first in the world to run a …

The post An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>

An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda

This could solve a lot of problems.

PETER DOCKRILL
4 JAN 2017

A chemical plant in India is the first in the world to run a new system for capturing carbon emissions and converting them into baking soda.

The Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals plant, in the industrial port city of Tuticorin, is expecting to convert some 60,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually into baking soda and other chemicals – and the scientists behind the process say the technique could be used to ultimately capture and transform up to 10 percent of global emissions from coal.

While carbon capture technology is not a new thing, what’s remarkable about the Tuticorin installation is that it’s running without subsidies from the government – suggesting the researchers have developed a profitable, practical system that could have the commercial potential to expand to other plants and industries.

“I am a businessman. I never thought about saving the planet,” the managing director of the plant, Ramachadran Gopalan, told the BBC.

“I needed a reliable stream of CO2, and this was the best way of getting it.”

The inventors of the new technique, London-based Carbon Clean Solutions, developed the system in the UK after receiving finance from a British entrepreneur support scheme. Their process uses a patented chemical to filter out CO2 molecules.

In the Tuticorin setup, the plant runs a coal-fired burner to make steam that powers its various chemical-manufacturing processes. A mist containing Carbon Clean’s chemical separates the CO2 emissions in the burner’s chimney, which are then fed into a mixing chamber with salt and ammonia.

The end product can then be used to produce baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) or a range of other compounds, for use in things such as glass manufacture, detergents, disinfectants, and sweeteners.

The overall idea of separating CO2 molecules from flue gas may not be new, but the team behind the system say that their filtering chemical is more efficient than the amine compounds that scientists have previously used, and requires less energy to run.

According to CEO Aniruddha Sharma, the company’s approach is to think realistically, partnering with modest, low-risk enterprises as it builds itself up – and he says the same strategy should be implemented by the carbon capture industry as a whole.

“So far the ideas for carbon capture have mostly looked at big projects, and the risk is so high they are very expensive to finance,” Sharma told Roger Harrabin at The Guardian.

“We want to set up small-scale plants that de-risk the technology by making it a completely normal commercial option.”

The other compelling aspect of the system is that it actually does something positive with the carbon – making new chemicals and products – rather than simply storing it somewhere in a useless, dormant state (such as burying it underground).

That distinction is the difference between carbon capture and storage (CCS) and what’s called carbon capture and utilisation (CCU).

And given the expense involved with building carbon capture systems, the ability to on-sell a byproduct could be incredibly important in making this technology financially viable in the bigger picture.

“We have to do everything we can to reduce the harmful effects of burning fossil fuels,” Lord Ronald Oxburgh, the head of the UK government’s carbon capture advisory group, told the BBC, “and it is great news that more ways are being found of turning at least some of the CO2 into useful products.”

The post An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>
http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_542.html/feed 0
Physicists have figured out how to create matter and antimatter using light http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_528.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_528.html#respond Fri, 30 Sep 2016 08:11:25 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=528 A team of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) has just announced that they managed to calculate how to create matter and antimatter using lasers. This means that, by focusing high-powered laser pulses, we might soon be able to create matter and antimatter using light. To …

The post Physicists have figured out how to create matter and antimatter using light appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>

A team of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) has just announced that they managed to calculate how to create matter and antimatter using lasers.

This means that, by focusing high-powered laser pulses, we might soon be able to create matter and antimatter using light.

To break this down a bit, light is made of high-energy photons. When high-energy photons go through strong electric fields, they lose enough radiation that they become gamma rays and create electron-positron pairs, thus creating a new state of matter.

“A strong electric field can, generally speaking, ‘boil the vacuum,’ which is full of ‘virtual particles,’ such as electron-positron pairs. The field can convert these types of particles from a virtual state, in which the particles aren’t directly observable, to a real one,” says Igor Kostyukov of IAP RAS, who references their calculations on the concept of quantum electrodynamics (QED).

12182736-fut-lightNASA Astrophysics

A QED cascade is a series of processes that starts with electrons and positrons accelerating within a laser field. It will then be followed by the release of high-energy photons, electrons, and positrons.

As high-energy photons decay, it will produce electron-positron pairs. Essentially, a QED cascade will lead to the production of electron positron high-energy photon plasmas – and while it perfectly illustrates the QED phenomenon, it is a theory that has yet to be observed under lab conditions.

Based on this, researchers observed how intense laser pulses would interact with a foil via numerical simulations. Surprisingly, they discovered that there were more high-energy photons produced by the positrons versus electrons produced of the foil.

And if you could produce a massive number of positrons via a corresponding experiment, you can conclude that most were generated via a QED cascade.

As complicated as all that sounds, here’s the bottom line – this discovery can open new doors in terms of how we can efficiently and cost-effectively produce matter and antimatter, the latter of which can significantly change the way we power our spaceships.

As has been previously noted, making this potential power source is not cheap:

“The problem lies in the efficiency and cost of antimatter production and storage. Making 1 gram of antimatter would require approximately 25 million billion kilowatt-hours of energy and cost over a million billion dollars.”

This work offers us a new way forward.

Their study also offers major insight into the properties of different types of interactions that could eventually pave the way for practical applications, including the development of advanced ideas for the laser-plasma sources of high-energy photons and positrons that will exceed the brilliance of any available source we have today.

“Next, we’re exploring the nonlinear stage when the self-generated electron-positron plasma strongly modifies the interaction,” the researchers add.

“And we’ll also try to expand our results to more general configurations of the laser-matter interactions and other regimes of interactions – taking a wider range of parameters into consideration.”

This article was originally published by Futurism. Read the original article.

The post Physicists have figured out how to create matter and antimatter using light appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>
http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_528.html/feed 0
The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train is coming to Germany The future is here. http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_525.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_525.html#respond Tue, 27 Sep 2016 07:40:57 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=525 The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train has been unveiled this week by French transport company Alstom, which will be operating the incredibly quiet and environmentally friendly ‘Coradia iLint’ in Germany from next year. The best thing about the Coradia iLint train is that it only leaks excess steam and condensed water into the atmosphere, which means …

The post The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train is coming to Germany The future is here. appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>

The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train has been unveiled this week by French transport company Alstom, which will be operating the incredibly quiet and environmentally friendly ‘Coradia iLint’ in Germany from next year.

The best thing about the Coradia iLint train is that it only leaks excess steam and condensed water into the atmosphere, which means it offers a zero-emissions alternative to Germany’s 4,000-strong fleet of diesel trains.

The train was presented to the public for the first time last week at Berlin’s InnoTrans trade show. Nicknamed the hydrail, it’s set to become the first hydrogen-powered passenger train to regularly operate over long distances.

The iLint is expected to run on the Buxtehude-Bremervörde-Bremerhaven-Cuxhaven regional line in the northwestern German state of Lower Saxony, with testing and approval procedures to be carried out later this year, and public access to open up by December 2017.

According to German newspaper Die Welt, Lower Saxony’s local transportation authority has so far ordered 14 iLint trains from Alstom, and if they prove to be a success, more will likely be seen in other regional areas of the country.

Interest in the train has also been expressed by leaders in the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway.

The iLint is powered by massive lithium ion batteries, which get their energy from a hydrogen fuel tank installed on the roof. On a full tank, which requires about 94 kg per car, the hydrail can operate for an entire full day, or travel up to 800 km. Its top speed is reportedly 140 km/h (87 mph).

Hydrogen-powered technology for trains has been around for just over a decade now, but rather than being used to ferry us humans around, full-hydrogen and hybrid versions have so far only been used in the freight industry.

As Christina Beck from The Christian Science Monitor reports, back in 2004, the Japanese Railway Research Institute developed a prototype fuel cell, and it went into use two years later. And last year, China started using hydrogen to power its trams in an effort to curb its severe air pollution problem.

The difference here is that Germany’s Coradia iLint will be able to transport 300 passengers at a time, and will be the first fully hydrogen-powered train to complete run long-distance routes

While carbon-based emissions from trains are actually a whole lot better than emissions from other types of vehicles – only 2.6 percent of Australia’s transport greenhouse gas emissions are attributable to rail, including passenger and freight – Germany’s commitment to renewables is stretching to just about any industry that it can feasibly apply.

And it’s paying off: on 8 May 2016, an impressive 95 percent of Germany’s power demands were met by renewable energy sources, and at certain points during the day, certain members of the public were being reimbursed for their energy usage.

“Power prices actually went negative for several hours, meaning commercial customers were being paid to consume electricity,” Michael J. Coren reported for Quartz at the time.

Not bad for one of the most developed and industrialised nations in the world.

Germany now plans on achieving an overall 60 percent share of renewable energy sources by 2050, which means it still has a whole lot of room to grow before it can catch up to Costa Rica, which earlier this month announced that it has been running on 100 percent renewable energy for two months straight.

Let’s hope the iLint can eventually replace the country’s 4,000 diesel trains, and get them closer to their goal.

Here’s a quick run-down of how the technology works (larger version here):

Alstom Coradia-iLint Decryption en OK by ahawkins8223 on Scribd

The post The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train is coming to Germany The future is here. appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>
http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_525.html/feed 0
Human Growth round the world http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/07/blog-post_508.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/07/blog-post_508.html#respond Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:57:42 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=508 Global height study finds out who grew the most in the past 100 years Get up, stand up. JACINTA BOWLER 27 JUL 2016 933 In a global height analysis based on nearly 1,500 studies, Dutch men and Latvian women topped the charts, standing tallest at heights of 182.5cm and 169.8cm on average respectively. The study …

The post Human Growth round the world appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>
Global height study finds out who grew the most in the past 100 years

Get up, stand up.

JACINTA BOWLER
27 JUL 2016

In a global height analysis based on nearly 1,500 studies, Dutch men and Latvian women topped the charts, standing tallest at heights of 182.5cm and 169.8cm on average respectively.

The study found heights have changed dramatically between 1914 and 2014, with South Korean women showing the largest increase of 20.2 cm over the period.

Americans are leading the race in another trend – plateauing. The study shows that although humans as a species are still getting taller, countries such as the US, UK, and Japan have stopped or slowed growing significantly in the last 30-40 years.

The US, once home to the 3rd tallest men and 4th tallest women in the world, are now sitting in 37th and 42nd place respectively.

“This study gives us a picture of the health of nations over the past century, and reveals the average height of some nations may even be shrinking while others continue to grow taller,” said lead researcher Majid Ezzati from Imperial College London in the UK.

“Our study also shows the English-speaking world, especially the USA, is falling behind other high-income nations in Europe and Asia Pacific. Together with the poor performance of these countries in terms of obesity, this emphasises the need for more effective policies towards healthy nutrition throughout life.”

Although part of the height difference can be attributed to genetics, the height increase is likely due to nutrition, hygiene, and healthcare – factors that influence whether people are reaching their height potential.

“An individual’s genetics has a big influence on [their] height … but once you average over whole populations, genetics plays a less key [role],” one of the researchers, James Bentham, told Nicola Davis at The Guardian.

“Most populations would grow to roughly similar heights if they were all in the same conditions.”

So where does your country sit in regards to heights, then and now? The researchers have put together an interactive world map to show how our heights have changed. There’s also a full list of rankings for males and females in the 200 countries studied.

Most of the top countries for height are European countries, with Australia being the only country not in Europe to be inside the top 25.

The news isn’t all good – some countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and the Middle East, have seen a decline in the average height in the last 30-40 years.

“This confirms we urgently need to address children and adolescents’ environment and nutrition on a global scale, and ensure we’re giving the world’s children the best possible start in life,” said Ezzati.

The study gives an interesting insight into how we have changed over the last 100 years – a time before teenager was a word, over half the US population lived in rural areas, and modern medicine was just getting off the ground.

“This is a unique analysis that shows the real power of combining a hundred years of population data sources that span the globe,” said Mary De Silva from the Wellcome Trust, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“The most striking finding is that despite the huge increases in height seen in some countries, there is still a considerable gap between the shortest and tallest countries. More research is needed to understand the reasons for this gap and to help devise ways of reducing the disparities in health that still persist globally.”

The study was published in eLife.

The post Human Growth round the world appeared first on ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय.

]]>
http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/07/blog-post_508.html/feed 0