Notice board – ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय http://gyanvigyanprasar.com Global School of Science and Philosophy Fri, 19 Jan 2018 05:52:54 +0000 en hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.3 This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_590.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_590.html#respond Mon, 15 Jan 2018 06:19:55 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=590 This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science You don’t need to be happy all the time. LOWRI DOWTHWAITE, THE CONVERSATION 12 JAN 2018 Over the past two decades, the positive psychology movement has brightened up psychological research with its science of happiness, human potential and flourishing. It argues that psychologists should not …

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This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science

You don’t need to be happy all the time.

LOWRI DOWTHWAITE, THE CONVERSATION
12 JAN 2018

Over the past two decades, the positive psychology movement has brightened up psychological research with its science of happiness, human potential and flourishing.

It argues that psychologists should not only investigate mental illness but also what makes life worth living.

The founding father of positive psychology, Martin Seligman, describes happiness as experiencing frequent positive emotions, such as joy, excitement and contentment, combined with deeper feelings of meaning and purpose.

It implies a positive mindset in the present and an optimistic outlook for the future.

Importantly, happiness experts have argued that happiness is not a stable, unchangeable trait but something flexible that we can work on and ultimately strive towards.

I have been running happiness workshops for the last four years based on the evidence from the above field of psychology.

The workshops are fun and I have earned a reputation as “Mrs Happy”, but the last thing I would want anyone to believe is that I am happy all the time. Striving for a happy life is one thing, but striving to be happy all the time is unrealistic.

Recent research indicates that psychological flexibility is the key to greater happiness and well-being.

For example, being open to emotional experiences and the ability to tolerate periods of discomfort can allow us to move towards a richer, more meaningful existence.

 

tudies have demonstrated that the way we respond to the circumstances of our lives has more influence on our happiness than the events themselves.

Experiencing stress, sadness and anxiety in the short term doesn’t mean we can’t be happy in the long term.

Two paths to happiness

Philosophically speaking there are two paths to feeling happy, the hedonistic and the eudaimonic.

Hedonists take the view that in order to live a happy life we must maximise pleasure and avoid pain. This view is about satisfying human appetites and desires, but it is often short lived.

In contrast, the eudaimonic approach takes the long view. It argues that we should live authentically and for the greater good. We should pursue meaning and potential through kindness, justice, honesty and courage.

If we see happiness in the hedonistic sense, then we have to continue to seek out new pleasures and experiences in order to “top up” our happiness.

We will also try to minimise unpleasant and painful feelings in order to keep our mood high.

If we take the eudaimonic approach, however, we strive for meaning, using our strengths to contribute to something greater than ourselves. This may involve unpleasant experiences and emotions at times, but often leads to deeper levels of joy and contentment.

So leading a happy life is not about avoiding hard times; it is about being able to respond to adversity in a way that allows you to grow from the experience.

Growing from adversity

Research shows that experiencing adversity can actually be good for us, depending on how we respond to it. Tolerating distress can make us more resilient and lead us to take action in our lives, such as changing jobs or overcoming hardship.

In studies of people facing trauma, many describe their experience as a catalyst for profound change and transformation, leading to a phenomenon known as “post-traumatic growth”.

Often when people have faced difficulty, illness or loss, they describe their lives as happier and more meaningful as a result.

The ConversationUnlike feeling happy, which is a transient state, leading a happier life is about individual growth through finding meaning.

It is about accepting our humanity with all its ups and downs, enjoying the positive emotions, and harnessing painful feelings in order to reach our full potential.

Lowri Dowthwaite, Lecturer in Psychological Interventions, University of Central Lancashire

This article was originally published by The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Britain’s new energy mix http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_581.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_581.html#respond Thu, 11 Jan 2018 05:28:13 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=581 Chris Case, ‎Bob Underwood, ‎Jesse Zuck Britain Now Generates Twice as Much Electricity From Wind as Coal, And That’s a Big Deal There’s no turning back now. GRANT WILSON & IAIN STAFFELL, THE CONVERSATION 8 JAN 2018 Just six years ago, more than 40 percent of Britain’s electricity was generated by burning coal. Today, that …

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Chris Case, ‎Bob Underwood, ‎Jesse Zuck

Britain Now Generates Twice as Much Electricity From Wind as Coal, And That’s a Big Deal

There’s no turning back now.

GRANT WILSON & IAIN STAFFELL, THE CONVERSATION
8 JAN 2018

Just six years ago, more than 40 percent of Britain’s electricity was generated by burning coal. Today, that figure is just 7 percent.

Yet if the story of 2016 was the dramatic demise of coal and its replacement by natural gas, then 2017 was most definitely about the growth of wind power.

Ireland shares an electricity system with the Republic and is calculated separately), up from 10 percent in 2016.

This increase, a result of both more wind farms coming online and a windier year, helped further reduce coal use and also put a stop to the rise in natural gas generation.

Great Britain’s annual electrical energy mix 2017. (National Grid and Elexon)

In October 2017, the combination of wind, solar and hydro generated a quarter of Britain’s electricity over the entire month, a new record helped by ex-hurricane Ophelia and storm Brian.Great Britain’s annual electrical energy mix 2017 per month. (National Grid and Elexon)

Since that record month, large new offshore wind farms have started to come online. Dudgeon began generating off the Norfolk coast, as did Rampion, which can be seen from Brighton town centre.

In all, Britain’s wind output increased by 14 terawatt hours between 2016 and 2017 – enough to power 4.5 million homes. To give a sense of scale, this increase alone is more than the expected annual output from one of the two new nuclear reactors being built at Hinkley Point C.

Not only is offshore wind growing fast, it is also getting much cheaper. When the latest round of government auctions for low-carbon electricity were awarded last year, two of the winning bids from offshore wind developers had a “strike price” of £57.50 per megawatt hour (MWh).

This is considerably cheaper than the equivalent contract for Hinkley Point of £92.50/MWh (in 2012 prices).

Although these wind farms won’t be built for another five years, this puts competitive pressure on other forms of low-carbon electricity.

If there is to be a nuclear renaissance, or if fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage are to become a reality, these industries will have to adjust to the new economic reality of renewable energy.

Britain is using less electricity

Overall demand for electricity also continued its 12-year downward trend. More of the electricity “embedded” in the products and services used in the UK is now imported rather than produced at home, and energy efficiency measures mean the country can do more with less.

This meant Britain in 2017 used about as much electricity as it did way back in 1987 – despite the considerable population growth.

At some point this trend will reverse though, as electric vehicles and heat pumps become more common and electricity partly replaces liquid fuels for transport and natural gas for heating respectively.

One major challenge this brings is how to accommodate greater seasonal and daily variation in the electricity system, without resorting to the benefits of fossil fuels, which can be pretty cheaply stored until required.

Electricity generated in Britain is now the cleanest it’s ever been. Coal and natural gas together produced less than half of the total generated.

Britain’s electricity was completely “coal free” for 613 hours last year, up from 200 hours in 2016. This position would be wholly unthinkable in many countries including Germany, India, China and the US, which still rely heavily on coal generation throughout the year.(National Grid and Elexon)

However, the low level of coal generation over 2017 masks its continued importance in providing capacity during hours of peak demand. During the top 10 percent hours of highest electrical demand, coal provided a sixth of Britain’s electricity.

When it matters most, coal is relied on more than nuclear, and more than the combined output from wind + solar + hydro. Additional energy storage could help wind and solar meet more of this peak demand with greater certainty.

Looking forward to 2018, we would be surprised if wind generation dropped much from its current levels. Last year wasn’t even particularly windy compared to the longer-term average, and more capacity will be coming online.

Equally, it would be surprising if solar and hydro combined produced significantly less than they did last year.

It is therefore inevitable that another significant milestone will be reached this year. At some point, for several hours, wind, solar and hydro will together, for the first time, provide more than half of Britain’s electricity generation.

This goes to show just how much a major power system can be reworked within a decade.

The ConversationThe data used in this article is based on the Energy Charts and Electric Insights websites, which allow readers to visualise and explore data on generation and consumption from Elexon and National Grid.

Data from other analyses (such as BEIS or DUKES) will differ due to their methodology, particularly by including combined heat and power, and other on-site generation which is not monitored by National Grid and Elexon.

Our estimated carbon emissions are based on Iain Staffell’s research published in Energy Policy, and account for foreign emissions due to electricity imports and biomass fuel processing.

Grant Wilson, Teaching and Research Fellow, Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield and Iain Staffell, Lecturer in Sustainable Energy, Imperial College London.

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Renewable energy http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_578.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_578.html#respond Fri, 05 Jan 2018 06:05:50 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=578 Germany Had So Much Renewable Energy Over Christmas It Had to Pay People to Use It This is the future. JEREMY BERKE, BUSINESS INSIDER 4 JAN 2018 People in Germany essentially got paid to use electricity on Christmas. Electricity prices in the country went negative for many customers – as in, below zero – on …

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Germany Had So Much Renewable Energy Over Christmas It Had to Pay People to Use It

This is the future.

JEREMY BERKE, BUSINESS INSIDER
4 JAN 2018

People in Germany essentially got paid to use electricity on Christmas.

Electricity prices in the country went negative for many customers – as in, below zero – on Sunday and Monday, because the country’s supply of clean, renewable power actually outstripped demand, according to The New York Times.

How this happens

The phenomenon is less rare than you may think.

Germany has invested over US$200 billion in renewable power over the last few decades, primarily wind and solar.

During times when electricity demand is low – such as weekends when major factories are closed, or when the weather is unseasonably sunny – the country’s power plants pump more electricity into the grid than consumers actually need.

The disparity arises because wind and solar power are generally inconsistent. When the weather is windy or sunny, the plants generate a lot of electricity, but all that excess power is difficult to store. Battery technology is not quite advanced enough to fully moderate the supply to the grid.

So when the weather is hot, like it was in parts of Germany over the weekend, and most businesses are closed, plants generate an excess supply of power despite unusually low demand. Then it’s a matter of simple economics – prices, in effect, dip below zero.

It’s important to note that Germany’s utilities companies aren’t depositing money directly into consumer’s accounts when this happens. Rather, the periods of negative-pricing lead to lower electricity bills over the course of a year.

The New York Times reported that some manufacturing plants and offices were incentivised to use electricity, at a cost of US$60 per megawatt-hour. And earlier this year, power prices in Germany spent a total of 31 hours below zero during an unseasonably warm October, according to the Times.

A key challenge for the transition to renewables

Traditional power grids – which mostly rely on fossil fuels to generate electricity – are designed so that output matches demand. But renewable energy technology hasn’t yet been developed to produce according to demand, since generation is a function of weather.

That’s “one of the key challenges in the whole transition of the energy market to renewable power,” Tobias Kurth, the managing director of Energy Brainpool, told the Times.

As storage technology lags behind the efficiency of renewable power sources, it’s likely that this negative-pricing situation will occur again. In that case, governments might need to provide incentives for people to increase their power usage when prices go negative.

These irregularities need to get figured out sooner rather than later, since renewable energy is growing rapidly, driven by the declining cost of technology and government subsidies. The International Energy Agency predicts that renewable energy will comprise 40 percent of global power generation by 2040.

In the next five years, the share of electricity generated by renewables worldwide is set to grow faster than any other source.

In Britain, renewable energy sources generated over triple the electricity as coal did in 2017, according to The Guardian. In June, during a particularly windy night, power prices actually went negative in Britain for a few hours as well – and it’s likely to happen again.

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Three simple step to master new subject ala Feynman http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_571.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_571.html#respond Thu, 04 Jan 2018 06:33:54 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=571 3 Simple Steps to Mastering Any New Subject, According to a Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist Learn anything faster using the Feynman Technique. BEC CREW 3 JAN 2018 As we get older, learning something new becomes more complex, tedious, and time-consuming than ever, and those child geniuses who can speak five different languages become our favourite dinnertime …

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3 Simple Steps to Mastering Any New Subject, According to a Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist

Learn anything faster using the Feynman Technique.

BEC CREW
3 JAN 2018

As we get older, learning something new becomes more complex, tedious, and time-consuming than ever, and those child geniuses who can speak five different languages become our favourite dinnertime conversation, because how do they even do that?

But mastering unfamiliar subjects, whether you’re still in school or not, doesn’t have to be so painful. Take it from Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Richard Feynman. He stumbled on a three-step formula that makes you learn anything not just faster, but on a deeper level too.

As Shane Parrish explains over at Medium, Richard Feynman exemplified the difference between “knowing something” and “knowing the name of something”.

What does that mean? Feynman explained it once in an interview, saying that someone could show you a little golden-breasted bird, and tell you it’s a brown-throated thrush. They could tell you it’s called a halzenfugel in German, and the Chinese call it a chung ling. 

You could remember these facts for the rest of your life, but you’d still know nothing about the actual bird – where it lives, how it migrates, what its calls sound like.

That’s a really obvious example of Feynman’s point, but it applies to far more complex subjects too.

Take water conducting electricity – it’s a fundamental part of how we understand the world around us, but after 200 years of searching, scientists have only just figured out how it actually happens.

A deep understanding of a new subject is crucial – even if you’re just trying to make it through an exam, because you have no idea what aspect of that subject they’re going to probe you on.

So get ready to ‘learn how to learn’ from a legit genius using the Feynman Technique.

Step 1: Teach it to a Child

Get a notebook out, write the topic you’re learning at the top of the page, and explain it, from start to finish, as if you were explaining it to a child.

If your first response is, “Um, how do I explain quantum mechanics to a child?” remember that xkcd once explained rocket science using only the 1,000 most common words in the English language.

That’s the key here – when you’re writing out your explanation for an eight-year-old, you can’t hide behind complicated jargon that you don’t actually understand.

“When you write out an idea from start to finish in simple language that a child can understand (tip: use only the most common words), you force yourself to understand the concept at a deeper level and simplify relationships and connections between ideas,” says Parrish.

“If you struggle, you have a clear understanding of where you have some gaps.”

Step 2: Review your knowledge gaps

Now that you’ve identified the gaps in your knowledge, you can study those specifically, get the answers, and repeat Step 1. Keep doing this until there are no gaps at all.

Step 3: Organise and simplify

You now should have a complete explanation for your new subject, that’s simple and comprehensive enough that even a kid could follow it.

Try to boil this down and simplify it, and read it out loud – that will help you identify any shaky, unconvincing bits.

Step 4 (optional): Try it on an actual human

You could recruit an actual eight-year-old and try explaining it to them, but assuming there’ll be attention span issues, grab a friend and try it on them.

If they don’t understand something in your explanation and you can’t explain it – there’s another gap.

And that’s all there is to the Feynman Technique.

It’s no quick fix (spoiler: there isn’t one), you still have to do your study, but if you do it right, you’re guaranteed to have a deep understanding of the subject you’re trying to learn, and it’s not all going to fall out of your head the minute you leave the exam hall.

Check out the video below to see the technique in action:

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http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/05/blog-post_435.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/05/blog-post_435.html#respond Tue, 31 May 2016 08:05:47 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=435 इस में हम आपकॊ ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय द्वारा करवाये जाने वाले कार्यक्रमॊं के बारे में बतलाते रहेंगे। हमारा पहला कार्यक्रम 27 नवम्बर कॊ डा जगदीश चंद्र बसु के जन्म दिन (30 नवंबर) के अवसर पर हॊगा। इस दिन हम इस वेब साईईट में दी गई सामग्री के आधार पर एक ऑन लाईन टेस्ट लेंगे। …

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इस में हम आपकॊ ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय द्वारा करवाये जाने वाले कार्यक्रमॊं के बारे में बतलाते रहेंगे।

हमारा पहला कार्यक्रम 27 नवम्बर कॊ डा जगदीश चंद्र बसु के जन्म दिन (30 नवंबर) के अवसर पर हॊगा। इस दिन हम इस वेब साईईट में दी गई सामग्री के आधार पर एक ऑन लाईन टेस्ट लेंगे। इस टेस्ट के आधार पर हम बच्चॊं कॊ ईनाम भी देंगे।

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