ज्ञान विज्ञान विश्व विद्यालय http://gyanvigyanprasar.com Global School of Science and Philosophy Fri, 19 Jan 2018 05:52:54 +0530 en hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.3 This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_590.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_590.html#respond Mon, 15 Jan 2018 06:19:55 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=590 This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science You don’t need to be happy all the time. LOWRI DOWTHWAITE, THE CONVERSATION 12 JAN 2018 Over the past two decades, the positive psychology movement has brightened up psychological research with its science of happiness, human potential and flourishing. It argues that psychologists should not …

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This Is The Biggest Key to Happiness, According to Science

You don’t need to be happy all the time.

LOWRI DOWTHWAITE, THE CONVERSATION
12 JAN 2018

Over the past two decades, the positive psychology movement has brightened up psychological research with its science of happiness, human potential and flourishing.

It argues that psychologists should not only investigate mental illness but also what makes life worth living.

The founding father of positive psychology, Martin Seligman, describes happiness as experiencing frequent positive emotions, such as joy, excitement and contentment, combined with deeper feelings of meaning and purpose.

It implies a positive mindset in the present and an optimistic outlook for the future.

Importantly, happiness experts have argued that happiness is not a stable, unchangeable trait but something flexible that we can work on and ultimately strive towards.

I have been running happiness workshops for the last four years based on the evidence from the above field of psychology.

The workshops are fun and I have earned a reputation as “Mrs Happy”, but the last thing I would want anyone to believe is that I am happy all the time. Striving for a happy life is one thing, but striving to be happy all the time is unrealistic.

Recent research indicates that psychological flexibility is the key to greater happiness and well-being.

For example, being open to emotional experiences and the ability to tolerate periods of discomfort can allow us to move towards a richer, more meaningful existence.

 

tudies have demonstrated that the way we respond to the circumstances of our lives has more influence on our happiness than the events themselves.

Experiencing stress, sadness and anxiety in the short term doesn’t mean we can’t be happy in the long term.

Two paths to happiness

Philosophically speaking there are two paths to feeling happy, the hedonistic and the eudaimonic.

Hedonists take the view that in order to live a happy life we must maximise pleasure and avoid pain. This view is about satisfying human appetites and desires, but it is often short lived.

In contrast, the eudaimonic approach takes the long view. It argues that we should live authentically and for the greater good. We should pursue meaning and potential through kindness, justice, honesty and courage.

If we see happiness in the hedonistic sense, then we have to continue to seek out new pleasures and experiences in order to “top up” our happiness.

We will also try to minimise unpleasant and painful feelings in order to keep our mood high.

If we take the eudaimonic approach, however, we strive for meaning, using our strengths to contribute to something greater than ourselves. This may involve unpleasant experiences and emotions at times, but often leads to deeper levels of joy and contentment.

So leading a happy life is not about avoiding hard times; it is about being able to respond to adversity in a way that allows you to grow from the experience.

Growing from adversity

Research shows that experiencing adversity can actually be good for us, depending on how we respond to it. Tolerating distress can make us more resilient and lead us to take action in our lives, such as changing jobs or overcoming hardship.

In studies of people facing trauma, many describe their experience as a catalyst for profound change and transformation, leading to a phenomenon known as “post-traumatic growth”.

Often when people have faced difficulty, illness or loss, they describe their lives as happier and more meaningful as a result.

The ConversationUnlike feeling happy, which is a transient state, leading a happier life is about individual growth through finding meaning.

It is about accepting our humanity with all its ups and downs, enjoying the positive emotions, and harnessing painful feelings in order to reach our full potential.

Lowri Dowthwaite, Lecturer in Psychological Interventions, University of Central Lancashire

This article was originally published by The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Britain’s new energy mix http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_581.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_581.html#respond Thu, 11 Jan 2018 05:28:13 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=581 Chris Case, ‎Bob Underwood, ‎Jesse Zuck Britain Now Generates Twice as Much Electricity From Wind as Coal, And That’s a Big Deal There’s no turning back now. GRANT WILSON & IAIN STAFFELL, THE CONVERSATION 8 JAN 2018 Just six years ago, more than 40 percent of Britain’s electricity was generated by burning coal. Today, that …

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Chris Case, ‎Bob Underwood, ‎Jesse Zuck

Britain Now Generates Twice as Much Electricity From Wind as Coal, And That’s a Big Deal

There’s no turning back now.

GRANT WILSON & IAIN STAFFELL, THE CONVERSATION
8 JAN 2018

Just six years ago, more than 40 percent of Britain’s electricity was generated by burning coal. Today, that figure is just 7 percent.

Yet if the story of 2016 was the dramatic demise of coal and its replacement by natural gas, then 2017 was most definitely about the growth of wind power.

Ireland shares an electricity system with the Republic and is calculated separately), up from 10 percent in 2016.

This increase, a result of both more wind farms coming online and a windier year, helped further reduce coal use and also put a stop to the rise in natural gas generation.

Great Britain’s annual electrical energy mix 2017. (National Grid and Elexon)

In October 2017, the combination of wind, solar and hydro generated a quarter of Britain’s electricity over the entire month, a new record helped by ex-hurricane Ophelia and storm Brian.Great Britain’s annual electrical energy mix 2017 per month. (National Grid and Elexon)

Since that record month, large new offshore wind farms have started to come online. Dudgeon began generating off the Norfolk coast, as did Rampion, which can be seen from Brighton town centre.

In all, Britain’s wind output increased by 14 terawatt hours between 2016 and 2017 – enough to power 4.5 million homes. To give a sense of scale, this increase alone is more than the expected annual output from one of the two new nuclear reactors being built at Hinkley Point C.

Not only is offshore wind growing fast, it is also getting much cheaper. When the latest round of government auctions for low-carbon electricity were awarded last year, two of the winning bids from offshore wind developers had a “strike price” of £57.50 per megawatt hour (MWh).

This is considerably cheaper than the equivalent contract for Hinkley Point of £92.50/MWh (in 2012 prices).

Although these wind farms won’t be built for another five years, this puts competitive pressure on other forms of low-carbon electricity.

If there is to be a nuclear renaissance, or if fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage are to become a reality, these industries will have to adjust to the new economic reality of renewable energy.

Britain is using less electricity

Overall demand for electricity also continued its 12-year downward trend. More of the electricity “embedded” in the products and services used in the UK is now imported rather than produced at home, and energy efficiency measures mean the country can do more with less.

This meant Britain in 2017 used about as much electricity as it did way back in 1987 – despite the considerable population growth.

At some point this trend will reverse though, as electric vehicles and heat pumps become more common and electricity partly replaces liquid fuels for transport and natural gas for heating respectively.

One major challenge this brings is how to accommodate greater seasonal and daily variation in the electricity system, without resorting to the benefits of fossil fuels, which can be pretty cheaply stored until required.

Electricity generated in Britain is now the cleanest it’s ever been. Coal and natural gas together produced less than half of the total generated.

Britain’s electricity was completely “coal free” for 613 hours last year, up from 200 hours in 2016. This position would be wholly unthinkable in many countries including Germany, India, China and the US, which still rely heavily on coal generation throughout the year.(National Grid and Elexon)

However, the low level of coal generation over 2017 masks its continued importance in providing capacity during hours of peak demand. During the top 10 percent hours of highest electrical demand, coal provided a sixth of Britain’s electricity.

When it matters most, coal is relied on more than nuclear, and more than the combined output from wind + solar + hydro. Additional energy storage could help wind and solar meet more of this peak demand with greater certainty.

Looking forward to 2018, we would be surprised if wind generation dropped much from its current levels. Last year wasn’t even particularly windy compared to the longer-term average, and more capacity will be coming online.

Equally, it would be surprising if solar and hydro combined produced significantly less than they did last year.

It is therefore inevitable that another significant milestone will be reached this year. At some point, for several hours, wind, solar and hydro will together, for the first time, provide more than half of Britain’s electricity generation.

This goes to show just how much a major power system can be reworked within a decade.

The ConversationThe data used in this article is based on the Energy Charts and Electric Insights websites, which allow readers to visualise and explore data on generation and consumption from Elexon and National Grid.

Data from other analyses (such as BEIS or DUKES) will differ due to their methodology, particularly by including combined heat and power, and other on-site generation which is not monitored by National Grid and Elexon.

Our estimated carbon emissions are based on Iain Staffell’s research published in Energy Policy, and account for foreign emissions due to electricity imports and biomass fuel processing.

Grant Wilson, Teaching and Research Fellow, Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield and Iain Staffell, Lecturer in Sustainable Energy, Imperial College London.

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Renewable energy http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_578.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_578.html#respond Fri, 05 Jan 2018 06:05:50 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=578 Germany Had So Much Renewable Energy Over Christmas It Had to Pay People to Use It This is the future. JEREMY BERKE, BUSINESS INSIDER 4 JAN 2018 People in Germany essentially got paid to use electricity on Christmas. Electricity prices in the country went negative for many customers – as in, below zero – on …

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Germany Had So Much Renewable Energy Over Christmas It Had to Pay People to Use It

This is the future.

JEREMY BERKE, BUSINESS INSIDER
4 JAN 2018

People in Germany essentially got paid to use electricity on Christmas.

Electricity prices in the country went negative for many customers – as in, below zero – on Sunday and Monday, because the country’s supply of clean, renewable power actually outstripped demand, according to The New York Times.

How this happens

The phenomenon is less rare than you may think.

Germany has invested over US$200 billion in renewable power over the last few decades, primarily wind and solar.

During times when electricity demand is low – such as weekends when major factories are closed, or when the weather is unseasonably sunny – the country’s power plants pump more electricity into the grid than consumers actually need.

The disparity arises because wind and solar power are generally inconsistent. When the weather is windy or sunny, the plants generate a lot of electricity, but all that excess power is difficult to store. Battery technology is not quite advanced enough to fully moderate the supply to the grid.

So when the weather is hot, like it was in parts of Germany over the weekend, and most businesses are closed, plants generate an excess supply of power despite unusually low demand. Then it’s a matter of simple economics – prices, in effect, dip below zero.

It’s important to note that Germany’s utilities companies aren’t depositing money directly into consumer’s accounts when this happens. Rather, the periods of negative-pricing lead to lower electricity bills over the course of a year.

The New York Times reported that some manufacturing plants and offices were incentivised to use electricity, at a cost of US$60 per megawatt-hour. And earlier this year, power prices in Germany spent a total of 31 hours below zero during an unseasonably warm October, according to the Times.

A key challenge for the transition to renewables

Traditional power grids – which mostly rely on fossil fuels to generate electricity – are designed so that output matches demand. But renewable energy technology hasn’t yet been developed to produce according to demand, since generation is a function of weather.

That’s “one of the key challenges in the whole transition of the energy market to renewable power,” Tobias Kurth, the managing director of Energy Brainpool, told the Times.

As storage technology lags behind the efficiency of renewable power sources, it’s likely that this negative-pricing situation will occur again. In that case, governments might need to provide incentives for people to increase their power usage when prices go negative.

These irregularities need to get figured out sooner rather than later, since renewable energy is growing rapidly, driven by the declining cost of technology and government subsidies. The International Energy Agency predicts that renewable energy will comprise 40 percent of global power generation by 2040.

In the next five years, the share of electricity generated by renewables worldwide is set to grow faster than any other source.

In Britain, renewable energy sources generated over triple the electricity as coal did in 2017, according to The Guardian. In June, during a particularly windy night, power prices actually went negative in Britain for a few hours as well – and it’s likely to happen again.

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Three simple step to master new subject ala Feynman http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_571.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2018/01/blog-post_571.html#respond Thu, 04 Jan 2018 06:33:54 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=571 3 Simple Steps to Mastering Any New Subject, According to a Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist Learn anything faster using the Feynman Technique. BEC CREW 3 JAN 2018 As we get older, learning something new becomes more complex, tedious, and time-consuming than ever, and those child geniuses who can speak five different languages become our favourite dinnertime …

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3 Simple Steps to Mastering Any New Subject, According to a Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist

Learn anything faster using the Feynman Technique.

BEC CREW
3 JAN 2018

As we get older, learning something new becomes more complex, tedious, and time-consuming than ever, and those child geniuses who can speak five different languages become our favourite dinnertime conversation, because how do they even do that?

But mastering unfamiliar subjects, whether you’re still in school or not, doesn’t have to be so painful. Take it from Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Richard Feynman. He stumbled on a three-step formula that makes you learn anything not just faster, but on a deeper level too.

As Shane Parrish explains over at Medium, Richard Feynman exemplified the difference between “knowing something” and “knowing the name of something”.

What does that mean? Feynman explained it once in an interview, saying that someone could show you a little golden-breasted bird, and tell you it’s a brown-throated thrush. They could tell you it’s called a halzenfugel in German, and the Chinese call it a chung ling. 

You could remember these facts for the rest of your life, but you’d still know nothing about the actual bird – where it lives, how it migrates, what its calls sound like.

That’s a really obvious example of Feynman’s point, but it applies to far more complex subjects too.

Take water conducting electricity – it’s a fundamental part of how we understand the world around us, but after 200 years of searching, scientists have only just figured out how it actually happens.

A deep understanding of a new subject is crucial – even if you’re just trying to make it through an exam, because you have no idea what aspect of that subject they’re going to probe you on.

So get ready to ‘learn how to learn’ from a legit genius using the Feynman Technique.

Step 1: Teach it to a Child

Get a notebook out, write the topic you’re learning at the top of the page, and explain it, from start to finish, as if you were explaining it to a child.

If your first response is, “Um, how do I explain quantum mechanics to a child?” remember that xkcd once explained rocket science using only the 1,000 most common words in the English language.

That’s the key here – when you’re writing out your explanation for an eight-year-old, you can’t hide behind complicated jargon that you don’t actually understand.

“When you write out an idea from start to finish in simple language that a child can understand (tip: use only the most common words), you force yourself to understand the concept at a deeper level and simplify relationships and connections between ideas,” says Parrish.

“If you struggle, you have a clear understanding of where you have some gaps.”

Step 2: Review your knowledge gaps

Now that you’ve identified the gaps in your knowledge, you can study those specifically, get the answers, and repeat Step 1. Keep doing this until there are no gaps at all.

Step 3: Organise and simplify

You now should have a complete explanation for your new subject, that’s simple and comprehensive enough that even a kid could follow it.

Try to boil this down and simplify it, and read it out loud – that will help you identify any shaky, unconvincing bits.

Step 4 (optional): Try it on an actual human

You could recruit an actual eight-year-old and try explaining it to them, but assuming there’ll be attention span issues, grab a friend and try it on them.

If they don’t understand something in your explanation and you can’t explain it – there’s another gap.

And that’s all there is to the Feynman Technique.

It’s no quick fix (spoiler: there isn’t one), you still have to do your study, but if you do it right, you’re guaranteed to have a deep understanding of the subject you’re trying to learn, and it’s not all going to fall out of your head the minute you leave the exam hall.

Check out the video below to see the technique in action:

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हमारा संविधान http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/08/blog-post_561.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/08/blog-post_561.html#respond Mon, 14 Aug 2017 10:44:34 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=561 तुम जब भी हमारे संविधान का नाम लेते हॊ, संविधान का एक न एक पन्ना कम हो जाता है। तुम जब भी किताब ए अंबेदकरी कॊ थाम लेते हॊ, किताब ए अंबेदकरी का एक पन्ना बेदम हो जाता है।   तेरे मन वचन कर्म में न जाने कैसा जादू है, तू जिसे शाम कॊ रोके …

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तुम जब भी हमारे संविधान का नाम लेते हॊ,

संविधान का एक न एक पन्ना कम हो जाता है।

तुम जब भी किताब ए अंबेदकरी कॊ थाम लेते हॊ,

किताब ए अंबेदकरी का एक पन्ना बेदम हो जाता है।

 

तेरे मन वचन कर्म में न जाने कैसा जादू है,

तू जिसे शाम कॊ रोके है, सुबह वही बेकाबू है,

तुम जब भी ग़रीबी मिटाने कॊ कॊई दाम देते हॊ,

कॊई न कॊई गरीब समूह बेचारा खतम हॊ जाता है।

तुम जब भी हमारे संविधान का नाम लेते हॊ,

संविधान का एक न एक पन्ना कम हो जाता है।

 

तेरे ज़लवॊं की बात कहूँ तॊ मैं क्या कहूँ सरकार,

तेरे आगे आगे जयजयकार, तेरे पीछे है हाहाकार,

तुम जब किसानॊं कॊ सलामती का सलाम देते हॊ,

माँ भारती के दिल में एक नया ग़म हॊ जाता है।

तुम जब भी हमारे संविधान का नाम लेते हॊ,

संविधान का एक न एक पन्ना कम हो जाता है।

 

अरे बेमिसाल हैं तेरे रोज़ाना और मासिक फ़रमान,

जिनके कफ़न में लिपट जाते हैं जन गण के अरमान,

तुम जब भी उन सब की बेहतरी का पैग़ाम देते हॊ,

मादरे हिंद का एक न एक सपना अधम हॊ जाता है।

तुम जब भी हमारे संविधान का नाम लेते हॊ,

संविधान का एक न एक पन्ना कम हो जाता है।

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An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_542.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_542.html#respond Thu, 05 Jan 2017 06:08:26 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=542 An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda This could solve a lot of problems. PETER DOCKRILL 4 JAN 2017 AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to FlipboardShare to Copy Link A chemical plant in India is the first in the world to run a …

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An Indian chemical plant has figured out how to turn its carbon emissions into baking soda

This could solve a lot of problems.

PETER DOCKRILL
4 JAN 2017

A chemical plant in India is the first in the world to run a new system for capturing carbon emissions and converting them into baking soda.

The Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals plant, in the industrial port city of Tuticorin, is expecting to convert some 60,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually into baking soda and other chemicals – and the scientists behind the process say the technique could be used to ultimately capture and transform up to 10 percent of global emissions from coal.

While carbon capture technology is not a new thing, what’s remarkable about the Tuticorin installation is that it’s running without subsidies from the government – suggesting the researchers have developed a profitable, practical system that could have the commercial potential to expand to other plants and industries.

“I am a businessman. I never thought about saving the planet,” the managing director of the plant, Ramachadran Gopalan, told the BBC.

“I needed a reliable stream of CO2, and this was the best way of getting it.”

The inventors of the new technique, London-based Carbon Clean Solutions, developed the system in the UK after receiving finance from a British entrepreneur support scheme. Their process uses a patented chemical to filter out CO2 molecules.

In the Tuticorin setup, the plant runs a coal-fired burner to make steam that powers its various chemical-manufacturing processes. A mist containing Carbon Clean’s chemical separates the CO2 emissions in the burner’s chimney, which are then fed into a mixing chamber with salt and ammonia.

The end product can then be used to produce baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) or a range of other compounds, for use in things such as glass manufacture, detergents, disinfectants, and sweeteners.

The overall idea of separating CO2 molecules from flue gas may not be new, but the team behind the system say that their filtering chemical is more efficient than the amine compounds that scientists have previously used, and requires less energy to run.

According to CEO Aniruddha Sharma, the company’s approach is to think realistically, partnering with modest, low-risk enterprises as it builds itself up – and he says the same strategy should be implemented by the carbon capture industry as a whole.

“So far the ideas for carbon capture have mostly looked at big projects, and the risk is so high they are very expensive to finance,” Sharma told Roger Harrabin at The Guardian.

“We want to set up small-scale plants that de-risk the technology by making it a completely normal commercial option.”

The other compelling aspect of the system is that it actually does something positive with the carbon – making new chemicals and products – rather than simply storing it somewhere in a useless, dormant state (such as burying it underground).

That distinction is the difference between carbon capture and storage (CCS) and what’s called carbon capture and utilisation (CCU).

And given the expense involved with building carbon capture systems, the ability to on-sell a byproduct could be incredibly important in making this technology financially viable in the bigger picture.

“We have to do everything we can to reduce the harmful effects of burning fossil fuels,” Lord Ronald Oxburgh, the head of the UK government’s carbon capture advisory group, told the BBC, “and it is great news that more ways are being found of turning at least some of the CO2 into useful products.”

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Finland has just launched a world-first universal basic income experiment http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_538.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_538.html#respond Thu, 05 Jan 2017 05:59:22 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=538 Finland has just launched a world-first universal basic income experiment It’s finally happening. DOM GALEON, FUTURISM 3 JAN 2017 AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to FlipboardShare to Copy Link It looks like 2,000 citizens in Finland will welcome the new year with outstretched arms. These Finns are the lucky recipients of a …

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Finland has just launched a world-first universal basic income experiment

It’s finally happening.

DOM GALEON, FUTURISM
3 JAN 2017

It looks like 2,000 citizens in Finland will welcome the new year with outstretched arms.

These Finns are the lucky recipients of a guaranteed income beginning this year, as the country’s government finally rolls out its universal basic income (UBI) trial run.

UBI is a potential source of income that could one day be available to all adult citizens, regardless of income, wealth, or employment status.

This pioneering UBI program was launched by the federal social security institution, Kela. It will give out €560 (US$587) a month, tax free, to 2,000 Finns that were randomly selected.

The only requirement was that they had to be already receiving unemployment benefits or an income subsidy.

The program allows unemployed Finns to not lose their benefits, even when they try out odd jobs.

“Incidental earnings do not reduce the basic income, so working and … self-employment are worthwhile no matter what,” says Marjukka Turunen, legal unit head at Kela.

If successful, the program could be extended to include all adult Finns.

“Its purpose is to reduce the work involved in applying for subsidies, as well as free up time and resources for other activities, such as making or applying for work,” according to a press release by Kela.

Furthermore, the Finnish government, as well as UBI advocates, may see how this program can end up saving more money for Finland in the long run – as it is less costly than maintaining social welfare services for the unemployed.

“Some people think basic income will solve every problem under the sun, and some people think it’s from the hand of Satan and will destroy our work ethic,” said Olli Kangas, who oversees research at Kela, about the program.

“I’m hoping we can create some knowledge on this issue.”

Then, of course, there is the looming issue of job loss due to automation. Many UBI proponents, including tech entrepreneurs Elon Musk (Tesla and SpaceX) and Sam Altman (Y Combinator), see the program as the only solution to the problem.

UBI is, without a doubt, controversial. There is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it’s a workable system. Of course, the only real way to definitively find out is to put the system to the test – hence, Finland’s experiment.

After its two-year run, the government will have enough data – from the 2,000 participants and a control group of about 173,000 non-participants from the same background – to see just how effective a UBI program could be.

Finland is just one of several governments considering a UBI trial in 2017. Also set for a trial this month is the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands – with Canada and Uganda also preparing their own programs.

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अगहन पूष की रात http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_535.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2017/01/blog-post_535.html#respond Mon, 02 Jan 2017 12:52:53 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=535 अगहन पूष की रात और इधर सड़क पर सोते इंसान। उधर मंदिर मस्ज़िद में मस्ती काटॆं अल्ला ओ भगवान। अगहन पूष की रात औ जन धन से दीन दुखी है लोग, उधर मम्दिर मस्ज़िद में गिर रहे चांदी सोने के जोग, ऐसी भक्ति, ऐसी शक्ति देख कर कविराज भी हैं हैरान। अगहन पूष की रात …

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अगहन पूष की रात और इधर

सड़क पर सोते इंसान।
उधर मंदिर मस्ज़िद में मस्ती

काटॆं अल्ला ओ भगवान।

अगहन पूष की रात औ जन

धन से दीन दुखी है लोग,
उधर मम्दिर मस्ज़िद में गिर

रहे चांदी सोने के जोग,
ऐसी भक्ति, ऐसी शक्ति देख कर

कविराज भी हैं हैरान।
अगहन पूष की रात और इधर

सड़क पर सोते इंसान।
उधर मंदिर मस्ज़िद में मस्ती

काटॆं अल्ला ओ भगवान।
अगहन पूष की रात, भूख से

मरें आकुल व्याकुल बच्चे,
उधर मुल्ले पांडॆ को षटरस

व्यंजन, छप्पन भोग सच्चे,
ऐसी ही भुक्ति, ऐसी ही मुक्ति

देते बाईबिल, वेद, कुरान।
अगहन पूष की रात और इधर

सड़क पर सोते इंसान।
उधर मंदिर मस्ज़िद में मस्ती

काटॆं अल्ला ओ भगवान।
अगहन पूष की रात में कुड़ा

कर्कट जलाते ज़ाहिल जन,
उधर अपने घरॊं ऐश करे

सर्वज्ञानी खुदा ऒ आनंद घन,
ऐसी ही बुद्धि, ऐसी ही शुद्धि देते

है परम नवीन विद्वान।
अगहन पूष की रात और इधर

सड़क पर सोते इंसान।
उधर मंदिर मस्ज़िद में मस्ती

काटॆं अल्ला ओ भगवान।

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Physicists have figured out how to create matter and antimatter using light http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_528.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_528.html#respond Fri, 30 Sep 2016 08:11:25 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=528 A team of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) has just announced that they managed to calculate how to create matter and antimatter using lasers. This means that, by focusing high-powered laser pulses, we might soon be able to create matter and antimatter using light. To …

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A team of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) has just announced that they managed to calculate how to create matter and antimatter using lasers.

This means that, by focusing high-powered laser pulses, we might soon be able to create matter and antimatter using light.

To break this down a bit, light is made of high-energy photons. When high-energy photons go through strong electric fields, they lose enough radiation that they become gamma rays and create electron-positron pairs, thus creating a new state of matter.

“A strong electric field can, generally speaking, ‘boil the vacuum,’ which is full of ‘virtual particles,’ such as electron-positron pairs. The field can convert these types of particles from a virtual state, in which the particles aren’t directly observable, to a real one,” says Igor Kostyukov of IAP RAS, who references their calculations on the concept of quantum electrodynamics (QED).

12182736-fut-lightNASA Astrophysics

A QED cascade is a series of processes that starts with electrons and positrons accelerating within a laser field. It will then be followed by the release of high-energy photons, electrons, and positrons.

As high-energy photons decay, it will produce electron-positron pairs. Essentially, a QED cascade will lead to the production of electron positron high-energy photon plasmas – and while it perfectly illustrates the QED phenomenon, it is a theory that has yet to be observed under lab conditions.

Based on this, researchers observed how intense laser pulses would interact with a foil via numerical simulations. Surprisingly, they discovered that there were more high-energy photons produced by the positrons versus electrons produced of the foil.

And if you could produce a massive number of positrons via a corresponding experiment, you can conclude that most were generated via a QED cascade.

As complicated as all that sounds, here’s the bottom line – this discovery can open new doors in terms of how we can efficiently and cost-effectively produce matter and antimatter, the latter of which can significantly change the way we power our spaceships.

As has been previously noted, making this potential power source is not cheap:

“The problem lies in the efficiency and cost of antimatter production and storage. Making 1 gram of antimatter would require approximately 25 million billion kilowatt-hours of energy and cost over a million billion dollars.”

This work offers us a new way forward.

Their study also offers major insight into the properties of different types of interactions that could eventually pave the way for practical applications, including the development of advanced ideas for the laser-plasma sources of high-energy photons and positrons that will exceed the brilliance of any available source we have today.

“Next, we’re exploring the nonlinear stage when the self-generated electron-positron plasma strongly modifies the interaction,” the researchers add.

“And we’ll also try to expand our results to more general configurations of the laser-matter interactions and other regimes of interactions – taking a wider range of parameters into consideration.”

This article was originally published by Futurism. Read the original article.

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The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train is coming to Germany The future is here. http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_525.html http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/2016/09/blog-post_525.html#respond Tue, 27 Sep 2016 07:40:57 +0000 http://gyanvigyanprasar.com/?p=525 The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train has been unveiled this week by French transport company Alstom, which will be operating the incredibly quiet and environmentally friendly ‘Coradia iLint’ in Germany from next year. The best thing about the Coradia iLint train is that it only leaks excess steam and condensed water into the atmosphere, which means …

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The world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train has been unveiled this week by French transport company Alstom, which will be operating the incredibly quiet and environmentally friendly ‘Coradia iLint’ in Germany from next year.

The best thing about the Coradia iLint train is that it only leaks excess steam and condensed water into the atmosphere, which means it offers a zero-emissions alternative to Germany’s 4,000-strong fleet of diesel trains.

The train was presented to the public for the first time last week at Berlin’s InnoTrans trade show. Nicknamed the hydrail, it’s set to become the first hydrogen-powered passenger train to regularly operate over long distances.

The iLint is expected to run on the Buxtehude-Bremervörde-Bremerhaven-Cuxhaven regional line in the northwestern German state of Lower Saxony, with testing and approval procedures to be carried out later this year, and public access to open up by December 2017.

According to German newspaper Die Welt, Lower Saxony’s local transportation authority has so far ordered 14 iLint trains from Alstom, and if they prove to be a success, more will likely be seen in other regional areas of the country.

Interest in the train has also been expressed by leaders in the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway.

The iLint is powered by massive lithium ion batteries, which get their energy from a hydrogen fuel tank installed on the roof. On a full tank, which requires about 94 kg per car, the hydrail can operate for an entire full day, or travel up to 800 km. Its top speed is reportedly 140 km/h (87 mph).

Hydrogen-powered technology for trains has been around for just over a decade now, but rather than being used to ferry us humans around, full-hydrogen and hybrid versions have so far only been used in the freight industry.

As Christina Beck from The Christian Science Monitor reports, back in 2004, the Japanese Railway Research Institute developed a prototype fuel cell, and it went into use two years later. And last year, China started using hydrogen to power its trams in an effort to curb its severe air pollution problem.

The difference here is that Germany’s Coradia iLint will be able to transport 300 passengers at a time, and will be the first fully hydrogen-powered train to complete run long-distance routes

While carbon-based emissions from trains are actually a whole lot better than emissions from other types of vehicles – only 2.6 percent of Australia’s transport greenhouse gas emissions are attributable to rail, including passenger and freight – Germany’s commitment to renewables is stretching to just about any industry that it can feasibly apply.

And it’s paying off: on 8 May 2016, an impressive 95 percent of Germany’s power demands were met by renewable energy sources, and at certain points during the day, certain members of the public were being reimbursed for their energy usage.

“Power prices actually went negative for several hours, meaning commercial customers were being paid to consume electricity,” Michael J. Coren reported for Quartz at the time.

Not bad for one of the most developed and industrialised nations in the world.

Germany now plans on achieving an overall 60 percent share of renewable energy sources by 2050, which means it still has a whole lot of room to grow before it can catch up to Costa Rica, which earlier this month announced that it has been running on 100 percent renewable energy for two months straight.

Let’s hope the iLint can eventually replace the country’s 4,000 diesel trains, and get them closer to their goal.

Here’s a quick run-down of how the technology works (larger version here):

Alstom Coradia-iLint Decryption en OK by ahawkins8223 on Scribd

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